What is in the center of the earth?
Our planet Earth has a layered structure and consists of three main parts: the crust, the mantle and the core. What is the center of the earth? Core. The depth of the core is 2900 km., And the diameter is approximately 3.5 thousand km. Inside - a monstrous pressure of 3 million atmospheres and an incredibly high temperature - 5000 ° C. In order to find out what is in the center of the Earth, it took scientists several centuries. Even modern technology could not penetrate deeper than twelve thousand kilometers. The deepest borehole located on the Kola Peninsula has a depth of 12,262 meters. To the center of the Earth is far away.
History of the discovery of the earth's core
One of the first guessed about the presence of a nucleus in the center of the planet was the English physicist and chemist Henry Cavendish at the end of the 18th century. Using physical experiments, he calculated the mass of the Earth and, based on its size, determined the average density of the substance of our planet - 5.5 g / cm3. The density of known rocks and minerals in the earth's crust was about two times less. From this followed the logical assumption that in the center of the Earth there is an area of more dense matter - the core.
In 1897, the German seismologist E.Wychert, studying the passage of seismic waves through the inner parts of the Earth, was able to confirm the assumption of the presence of a nucleus. And in 1910, American geophysicist B. Gutenberg determined the depth of its location. Subsequently, hypotheses were born about the process of nucleation. It is assumed that it was formed due to the sedimentation of heavier elements towards the center, and initially the substance of the planet was homogeneous (gaseous).
What does the core consist of?
To investigate a substance whose sample cannot be obtained in order to study its physical and chemical parameters is rather difficult. Scientists have only to assume the presence of certain properties, as well as the structure and composition of the nucleus by indirect evidence. Especially helped in the study of the internal structure of the Earth studying the propagation of seismic waves. Seismographs, located at many points on the surface of the planet, record the speed and types of transmitted seismic waves arising as a result of earthquake shocks. All these data provide an opportunity to judge the internal structure of the Earth, including the core.
At present, scientists assume that the central part of the planet is not homogeneous.What is in the center of the earth? The part adjacent to the mantle is a liquid core consisting of a molten substance. Apparently, it contains a mixture of iron and nickel. Scientists at this thought led the study of iron meteorites, which are pieces of asteroid nuclei. On the other hand, the resulting iron-nickel alloys have a higher density than the assumed core density. Therefore, many scientists tend to assume that there are lighter chemical elements in the center of the Earth, the core.
The existence of a magnetic core and the rotation of the planet around its own axis of geophysics also explain the existence of a magnetic field. It is known that the electromagnetic field around the conductor occurs when current moves. The melted layer adjacent to the mantle serves as such a gigantic conductor with current.
The inner part of the core, despite the temperature of several thousand degrees, is a solid. This is due to the fact that the pressure in the center of the planet is so high that the red-hot metals become hard. Some scientists have suggested that a solid core consists of hydrogen, which, under the influence of an incredible pressure and an enormous temperature, becomes like a metal.Thus, what is the center of the Earth, even to geophysicists is not yet known for certain. But if we consider the question from a mathematical point of view, then we can say that the center of the Earth is approximately 6,378 km. from the surface of the planet.
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