• What is a tree?

    What is a tree in terms of biology? What kind of structure does it have, what kinds of trees exist? We will tell about it further.

    Tree: basic characteristics

    To begin with, we give the definition of the word "tree". What is a tree? The dictionary defines it as a perennial plant with a solid trunk and branches emerging from it, forming a crown.

    The tree structure is represented by three elements: root, trunk, crown.

    Root

    In most cases, this part of the trees is located underground, but there are also so-called “aerial roots”, which are located above the ground and perform functions similar to those of the leaves (see below). The key task of the roots is the absorption of nutrients, moisture from the soil and their subsequent transfer to the trunk. In addition, the roots help keep the plant upright. The roots of some trees have an enormous length (up to 100 meters), while the depth to which the roots go can easily reach up to 30 meters.

    Trunk

    It is not only a crown support, but also a link between the roots and the crown, through which it receives nutrients and moisture.The trunk itself consists of a core and wood, which tends to grow inward, forming the so-called "annual rings" (not all trees have) - areas of dark and light color that are clearly visible in the transverse section of the trunk. On them it is possible to determine the age of the tree. In general, annual rings are characteristic of perennial trees growing in temperate latitudes. Covers the trunk of the bark.

    Crown

    It consists of branches coming from the trunk and leaves growing on them. For the analysis of the crown, the concept of its form (for example, the crown may be sprawling) and density (may be dense, moderate, rare) are used. In the leaves, due to the process of photosynthesis, the formation of organics from carbon dioxide and water occurs.

    Tree classification

    Depending on the type of leaves emit:

    • Coniferous trees. The leaves are hard, needle-shaped or scaly, which have the property to maintain a rich green color and a characteristic bright aroma all year round (you can feel it by stretching a leaf in your hands). The foliage change, although it happens, is not as noticeable as that of deciduous trees. Coniferous plants change their foliage gradually, throughout life.In addition to foliage, cones or juniper berries grow on such trees. As for what plants are called coniferous trees, this is, for example, cypress, spruce and pine, larch, sequoia.
    • Deciduous trees. Their leaves are much wider than those of conifers. The old foliage turns yellow in the fall and then it falls off (deciduous trees seem to “hibernate” for the winter period), and a new one comes to replace it in the spring. Among this species of trees, fruit varieties are distinguished, for example, an apple tree, a sweet cherry tree, a pear tree, and an apricot.

    In addition, trees are isolated exotic - they grow in tropical countries. This, for example, avocado, baobab, hevea, durian, cocoa and so on. There are also trees whose wood is valued especially highly. This, for example, rosewood, zebrano, boxwood, wenge, cherry, ebony, Karelian birch, merbau, rosewood and so on. Such wood is used for the manufacture of furniture, decorative items (statuettes, boxes, dishes), interior doors, parquet. Such products are very expensive, and therefore are elite status.


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