How to teach problem solving?
Throughout school life, starting from the first grade, the student has to solve many mathematical (arithmetic) problems. Later, starting from the 6-7th grade, they are replaced by problems in algebra and geometry. The same principles of setting assignments form the basis of exercises in physics, chemistry, biology, computer science, etc. Therefore, it is important to teach a child to solve problems from an early school age.
How to teach to solve the problems of younger students
In order to teach a child to solve math problems, you need to follow a certain plan, by points:
Motivate the child
It is necessary to explain to the student what goals are pursued during the study of this subject. Unfortunately, many modern children do not have the motivation and perceive learning as a "hard labor". It is necessary to explain to the child that mathematics is everywhere. In fact, it is much easier to motivate an elementary school student than a high school or high school student. After all, to explain that arithmetic is needed to calculate the area of a room or the speed of a train moving is easier than what square equations or sines with cosines are needed for.
Come up with an approach to solving problems
The first thing to do is to slowly and carefully re-read the conditions of the problem several times, try to imagine what is being said. After that, on paper (in a notebook) you will need to schematically outline these conditions, determine the question, execute the decision and write the answer (all this is done gradually). If a child cannot penetrate into a task or find its simplest solution, it is impossible to get angry at him and show his displeasure, be nervous. It is necessary to explain the conditions as much as possible, and perhaps give an example from life.
Tips for parents: how to help in solving problems
Solving various tasks in elementary school almost always follows the principle of “finding the unknown by two known ones”, this must be remembered. If the child has a poorly developed abstract thinking, you need to try to solve the problem with the help of available tools (the same counting sticks) or a drawing. You learn about how to teach a child to counting from our article - How to teach a child to count.
What seems simple and accessible to an adult can be incomprehensible for a student, especially a first grader. To teach a child how to solve problems, as high school students can do, you need to try to think like him. The simplest tasks, for example: “Kolya had three apples, and Masha had two.How many apples did the children have together? ”You can draw by depicting three Kolya apples and two Masha apples, and then count them all together.
In order to solve arithmetic problems, you need to teach the child conditions so that they have less unnecessary information, crossing out all unnecessary and unimportant. When the child understands the principle of action, and, having solved several dozens of similar problems, he will be able to find the answer to the rest by whim.
No need to think that by doing one exercise with a child, you can teach him to solve all types of problems. First of all, to teach them to solve is the task of the teacher, and the parent should help with homework.
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